What is Android? Complete History and Version Development


Speaking of Android. Hearing the word Android may not be a foreign word to our ears, especially in modern times like now. However, maybe some of you don’t know or don’t understand what Android is, here BangSep will discuss a little about what Android is? And the history of the Android journey and know more about the android version from the first version to the present.

What is Android?

Android is an operating system (OS Operation System) based on a Linux Kernel that supports the performance of touch screen electronic devices, such as smartphones, tablets and now it can be used on android tv and smart tv. Android is Open Source or free to use, which means that this Android OS is without a license or free.

Android History

The first Android started in October 2003 – long before the term smartphone was widely used and years before Apple announced its first iPhone and iOS. Android, Inc. founded in Palo Alto, California. The four founders are Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White, and Andy Rubin. At the time, Rubin said that Android, Inc. will develop “mobile devices that are smarter about their owner’s location and preferences.”

Rubin revealed in his 2013 speech in Tokyo that the Android OS was originally intended to improve the operating system of digital cameras. But at that time, the digital camera market founded by Android, Inc. it is decreasing. Just a few months later, Android, Inc. decided to switch to developing and deploying the OS on the phone.

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Google bought Android in 2005 and everything changed.

In 2005, the next big chapter in Android’s history began when the original company was acquired by Google. Rubin and the other founding members continued to develop the OS under their new owners. The decision was made to use Linux as the basis for the Android OS. This means that the operating system can be offered to third-party phone manufacturers for free. Google and the Android, Inc. team. feels his company will be able to make money by offering other services that use the OS, including apps.

Rubin remained at Google as head of the Android team until 2013, when the Mountain View company announced he was leaving the division. In late 2014, Rubin left Google and launched a startup business incubator before finally returning to the smartphone business with the ill-fated “Essential” in 2017.

The now familiar Android OS logo which looks like a combination of a robot and a green insect, was created by Irina Blok while she was working at Google. Irina said that the only direction given by Google’s design team was to create a logo that looked like a robot. Irina also stated that the final design for the Android mascot was partly inspired by the familiar appearance of the toilet logo representing “ Men ” and “ Women ”. It’s quite weird when the android logo was formed.

One thing Irina and Google decided was to make the Android robot itself an open source project. Almost every other big company will protect such a logo or mascot from being redesigned and used by someone else. However the Android Logo has now been modified and used by many people, all because Google allowed the change under the Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License.

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The Android mascot – also known as “Andy” – was revamped along with most Android brands in 2019. Andy may have lost his body, but his new look is now much more ubiquitous across all Android brands.

Android 1.0 launch

In 2007, Apple launched the first iPhone and ushered in a new era in the competitive cellular phone scene. At the time, Google was still working on Android in secret, but in November of that year, the Google company slowly began to reveal its plans to compete with Apple and other mobile platforms. In a major development, Google led the formation of the so-called Open Handset Alliance. That includes cell phone makers like HTC and Motorola, chipmakers like Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, and carriers including T-Mobile.
Then Google Chairman and CEO Eric Schmidt was quoted as saying, ” Today’s announcement is more ambitious than any ‘Google Phone’ the press has speculated over the past few weeks. Our vision is that the powerful platform we are introducing will power thousands of different phone models.

The public beta of Android version 1.0 was released to developers on November 5, 2007.

HTC DreamT-Mobile G1/HTC Dream

In September 2008, the first Android smartphone was announced: the T-Mobile G1, also known as the HTC Dream in other parts of the world. It went on sale in the US in October of that year. The phone, with its 3.2-inch pop-up touch screen combined with a physical QWERTY keyboard is not an extraordinary design. Indeed the T-Mobile G1 got pretty bad reviews from tech media outlets. The device doesn’t even have the standard 3.5mm headphone jack which, unlike today, is a handy feature phone among Android competitors.

However, the Android 1.0 OS in it already has a marketing target and an introduction to Google’s plans for the OS. It integrates a number of other company’s products and services, including Google Maps, YouTube, and HTML browser (Chrome) that  of course, use the Google search service. It also has the first version of the Android Market now named Google Playstore, the app store that Google proudly states will have, “dozens of unique and first-of-its-kind Android apps.” All of these features sound very primitive for today, but this was only the beginning of the rise of Android in the mobile market and it is evident now how fast Android has grown.

Main OS versions of Android

Android 1.5 Cupcake

The first official public codename for Android didn’t appear until version 1.5 Cupcake was released in April 2009. The credit for naming a version of Android after sweet candy and dessert has traditionally gone to its project manager at Google, Ryan Gibson. However, the specific reason for using such a naming convention is still unknown.

Cupcake added several new features and improvements compared to the first two public versions. This includes things we now take for granted, like the ability to upload videos to YouTube, how the phone display automatically rotates, and support for third-party keyboards.

Some of the phones released with Cupcake pre-installed unexpectedly like the first Samsung Galaxy phones along with the HTC Hero.

Android 1.6 Donut

Google quickly launched Android 1.6 Donut in September 2009. The new OS now offers support for carriers using CDMA-based networks. This allows Android phones to be sold by all carriers worldwide.

Other features include the introduction of the Quick Search Box and quick switching between Camera, Video Recorder, and Gallery to simplify the media capture experience. Android Donut also introduces a Power Control widget to manage Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPS, etc.

One of the phones sold with Android Donut installed is the ill-fated Dell Streak. It had a large (at the time) 5-inch screen, it might currently be called a “smartphone or tablet”. Currently, a 5-inch screen is considered relatively small for the size of a smartphone.

Android 2.0-2.1 Eclair

In October 2009 – about a year after the release of Android 1.0 – Google released the OS version 2.0, with the official code name Eclair. This version is the first to add text-to-speech support, and it also introduces animated wallpapers, multiple accounts support, and Google Maps navigation, among many other new features and improvements.

Motorola Droid is the first phone to use Android 2.0. The Droid is also the first Android-based phone sold by Verizon Wireless. In funny trivia, while Google is safe using Android as a name for its OS, the term “Droid” is trademarked by Lucasfilm, referring to the robots from the Star Wars franchise. Motorola had to get permission and pay Lucasfilm some money to use the name for its phones. Motorola continued to use the Droid brand for many of its phones into 2016.

Android 2.2 Froyo

Android 2.2 Froyo (short for “frozen yogurt”) was officially launched in May 2010. Smartphones using Froyo can take advantage of several new features, including the Wi-Fi mobile hotspot function, push notifications via the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service ) , flash support and more.

The first smartphone to carry Google’s Nexus brand – the Nexus One – launched with Android 2.1 in early 2010, but quickly received an update to Froyo later that year. This marks a new approach for Google, with the company working closer than ever with hardware manufacturer HTC to showcase pure Android.

Android 2.3 Gingerbread

Android 2.3 Gingerbread was launched in September 2010. This OS received a user interface refresh under Gingerbread. It adds support for using the near field communication (NFC) function for smartphones with the required hardware. The first phone to use Gingerbread and NFC hardware was the Nexus S, which was jointly developed by Google and Samsung. Gingerbread also laid the groundwork for selfies by adding support for multiple cameras and video chat support within Google Talk.

Android 3.0 Honeycomb

This OS version is probably the oddest of the bunch. Honeycomb is made for tablets and other mobile devices with larger screens. It was first introduced in February 2011, along with the Motorola Xoom tablet. This includes features such as a redesigned UI for large screens, along with a notification bar placed at the bottom of the tablet screen.

The idea was that Honeycomb would offer features that the smaller screens on smartphones at the time couldn’t handle. It was also a response from Google and its third-party partners to the 2010 release of Apple’s iPad. Although Honeycomb is available, some tablets are still released with a smartphone-based version of Android 2.x. In the end, Honeycomb became a version of Android that was not widely adopted. Google decided to integrate most of its features in the next 4.0 version, Ice Cream Sandwich. It’s a little weird in Android history.

Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich

Released in October 2011, the Android version of Ice Cream Sandwich brings a number of new features. It combines the many options of the tablet-only Honeycomb version with the smartphone-oriented Gingerbread. It also includes a “favorite folder” on the home screen, along with the first support for unlocking the phone by using its camera to take a picture of the owner’s face. This type of biometric login support has grown and improved tremendously since then.

Other notable changes with ICS include support for all on-screen buttons, a swipe gesture to dismiss notifications and browser tabs, and the ability to monitor your data usage over cellular and Wi-Fi.

Android 4.1-4.3 Jelly Bean

The Android Jelly Bean era began in June 2012 with the release of Android 4.1. Google quickly released versions 4.2 and 4.3 – both under the Jelly Bean label – in October 2012 and July 2013.

Some of the new additions in this software update include a new notification feature that displays more content or action buttons, along with full support for the Android version of the Google Chrome web browser, which was included in Android 4.2. Google Now also featured as part of Search, while “Project Butter” was introduced to speed up animations and improve Android’s touch responsiveness. External Display and Miracast are also supported, as is HDR photography.

Android 4.4 KitKat

Android 4.4 is the first version of the OS to actually use the previous trademarked name for a piece of candy. Before it officially launched in September 2013, the company released hints at the Google I/O conference that year that the codename for Android 4.4 was actually “Key Lime Pie”. Indeed, most of Google’s Android team thought that would also happen.

It turns out that Google’s director of global Android partnerships, John Lagerling, thought that “Key Lime Pie” wouldn’t be a familiar enough name to use around the world. Instead, he decided to do something different. He contacted Nestle, the maker of the KitKat bar, and asked if they could use a name for Android 4.4. Nestle agreed and KitKat became the name of the next version of Android. It was an experiment in marketing that Google didn’t revive until the launch of Android Oreo.

KitKat doesn’t have a lot of new features, but it does have one thing that really helps expand the Android market as a whole. It is optimized to run on smartphones having at least 512 MB RAM. This allows phone makers to use the latest version of Android on much cheaper handsets. Google’s Nexus 5 smartphone is the first with Android 4.4 pre-installed.

Android 5.0 Lollipop

First launched in 2014, Android 5.0 Lollipop is a major overhaul in the overall look of the operating system. It was the first version of the OS to use Google’s new Material Design language. It makes free use of lighting and shadow effects, among other things, to simulate the paper-like appearance of the Android user interface. The UI also gets several other improvements, including an updated navigation bar, rich notifications for the lock screen, and more.

The next Android 5.1 update makes some hidden changes. This includes official support for dual-SIM, HD Voice calling, and Device Protection to keep thieves locked out of your phone even after a factory reset.

The Google Nexus 6 smartphone, along with its Nexus 9 tablet, were the first devices to install Lollipop.

Android 6.0 Marshmallow

Released in 2015, Android 6.0 Marshmallow uses the sweet treats that campers love as its main symbol. Internally, Google used the “Macadamia Nut Cookie” for Android 6.0 prior to the official announcement of Marshmallow. This includes features like a vertically scrolling app drawer, along with Google Now on Tap, native support for biometric or fingerprint unlocking, USB Type-C support, recognition of Android Pay (now Google Pay), and more.

The first devices to ship with Marshmallow pre-installed were the Google Nexus 6P and Nexus 5X smartphones, along with its Pixel C tablet.

Android 7.0 Nougat

Version 7.0 of Google’s mobile operating system was launched in 2016. Before Nougat was revealed, “Android N” was internally referred to by Google as “New York Cheesecake.” Nougat’s many new features include better multi-tasking functionality for a growing number of smartphones with larger displays, such as split-screen mode, along with fast switching between apps.

Google is also making some big behind-the-scenes changes. This switches to a new JIT compiler to speed up applications, supports the Vulkan API for faster 3D rendering, and allows OEMs to support the now-defunct Daydream VR platform.

Google is also using the release to make a bold push into the premium or flagship smartphone market. The Google company itself is the Google Pixel phone and the Pixel XL, along with the LG V20, are the first to be released with Nougat pre-installed.

Android 8.0 Oreo

In March 2017, Google officially announced and released the first developer preview for Android O, also known as Android 8.0. Prior to that release, Hiroshi Lockheimer, senior vice president of Android at Google, posted a GIF of the Oreo cookie on Twitter – the first strong hint that Oreo, the popular cookie, will indeed be the official codename for Android 8.0.

In August, Google confirmed the cookie-inspired public name for Android 8.0. This is the second time the company has chosen a trademarked name for Android (Oreo is owned by Nabisco). Abandoning tradition, Google showcased the Android Oreo mascot statuette for the first time at a press event in New York City, not at the Googleplex headquarters. The statue depicts the Android mascot as a flying superhero, complete with a cape. The second statue was installed at Google’s main headquarters on the same day.

As far as features go, Android Oreo packs a lot of visual changes to the Settings menu, along with native support for picture-in-picture mode, notification channels, a new AutoFill API for better password and data fill management, and more. again. Android Oreo was first installed on Google’s own Pixel 2 phones.

Android 9.0 Pie

Google launched the first developer preview of the next major Android update, Android 9.0 Pie on March 7, 2018. On August 6 2018, the company officially launched the final version of Android 9.0, giving it the official codename “Pie”.

Android 9.0 Pie includes a number of major new features and changes. One of them ditched the traditional navigation buttons and replaced a single button extending in the middle, which became the new home button. Swiping up will show the Summary, with your last used apps, a search bar, and five suggested apps at the bottom. You can swipe left to see all recently opened apps, or you can drag the home button to the right to quickly scroll through your apps.

Android 9.0 Pie also includes several new features designed to help extend the battery life of your smartphone. That is achieved by the use of machine learning on the device which predicts which apps you will use now, and which apps will not use until later. Pie also has Do Not Disturb, a feature that automatically puts your phone in Do Not Disturb mode when you flip the phone screen down on a flat surface. There are also Slices, which provide smaller versions of installed apps within Google Search, offering specific app functionality without opening the full app.

As usual, Android 9.0 Pie was first officially available for Google’s Pixel phones, but also launched on Essential Phones at the same time.

Android 10

10 years after the launch of its first OS Google launched the first official developer preview of Android Q, on March 13, 2019. On August 22, 2019, Google announced a major refresh of the Android brand. That includes a new logo and more importantly, the decision to ditch the traditional dessert name for the next version. As a result, Android Q is officially known as Android 10. It was officially launched on September 3, 2019, for Google Pixel devices.

As usual with new Android releases, Android 10 has a number of new features and improvements, as well as a number of new APIs. That includes support for a rush of foldable phones like the upcoming Samsung Galaxy Fold. Android 10 also introduces a system-wide dark mode, along with new gesture navigation controls, a more efficient sharing menu, a smart reply feature for all messaging apps, and more control over app-based permissions.

Android 11

On February 18, Google launched the first Developer Preview for Android 11. After several public betas were released, the final version of Android 11 launched on September 8, 2020.

Android 11 has come with many new features. It includes the new Conversation notification category where all your chats from different apps are gathered in one place. You also have the option to save every notification that appeared on your phone in the last 24 hours. A new feature lets you record your phone’s screen, complete with audio, without the need for a third-party app. There’s also a new section of Android 11 dedicated to controlling smart home devices.

Hopefully this article can add knowledge and help you, Thank you.